The number of foreign nationals in Japan exceeded 3 million as of the end of last year for the first time on record.
The Immigration Services Agency says the figure rose by more than 310,000 from the year before, to top 3,070,000.
The number of foreign nationals with student status grew by more than 90,000, to over 300,000. The figure for foreign technical interns rose by around 50,000, to over 320,000.
Agency officials say easing of coronavirus border controls led to a surge in entrants seeking mid- to long-term residency.
The number of foreign nationals ordered to leave the country for overstaying their visas and other reasons reached over 10,300. The figure was down by about 7,700 from the previous year.
About 4,800 people were deported, up more than 670 from a year earlier.